THE SIGHTING OF THE MOON
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that start
fasting by seeing the moon and finish fasting ( celebrate Eid) by seeing
the moon, and if there is cloud then finish Shabaan by completing thirty
days [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also reported that do not start fasting
unless you see the moon and do not stop fasting until you see the moon
and if there is cloud and you cannot see the moon then complete the
thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim].
Proof of moon when skies are clear
Rule: It the skies are clear then until a lot of people do not give
witness the oath will not be accepted (whether it be for Ramadan, Eid or
any other month). The question remains as to how many people there
should be, then this is upto the Islamic judge and when he is satisfied
with the amount of people then he will declare it official. If the
witnessing is given because the moon has been seen outside the city or
from a high place then only one pious person's oath can be accepted for
Ramadan [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. However, we say that because
nowadays people are lazy and do not bother going to look for the moon
then except for Eid all the other month's moon witnessing when the skies
are clear should be accepted if two Muslims have given oath.
Giving an oath when seeing the moon
When giving oath it is necessary to say "I bear witness" and without
these words the oath cannot be accepted. However, due to' bad skies and
clouds for the oath of the moon for Ramadan if only "I have seen with my
eyes the moon for this Ramadan today or I saw it last night' is
Rule: If some people come and say 'the moon has been seen in such a
place or give witness that there has been a sighting of the moon (but
have not seen the moon themselves) in such a place, or give witness that
such and such a person has seen the moon or say that the judge of such a
town has ordered Ramadan or Eid tomorrow then they are all incorrect
methods and cannot be accepted [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If only the judge or Imam has seen the moon alone for Eid then he
can't celebrate or give order to celebrate Eid as this is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Rule: If the moon was seen in a particular city and a group of people
came from that city and stated the news that Ramadan has begun on such a
day and people have started fasting from that day and the news is common
then this is sufficient for people in this town as proof [Radd-ut-Mohtar,
Rule: A person saw the moon alone for Ramadan or Eid but the judge did
not accept his statement or oath then it is Wajib for him to fast the
next day and if he doesn't or has broken the fast the Qaza is necessary
[Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
Rule: If the moon is seen during the day whether it be before or after
midday that moon is for the next day, meaning if the moon is seen on the
thirtieth day of Ramadan then it means the next day is the first of
Shawwal and not the current day and therefore the fast must be
completed. In the same way if the moon is seen during the day of the
thirtieth of Shabaan, then Ramadan will begin the next day and the
current day is the thirtieth of Shawwal and therefore fasting is not
necessary [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Rule: If
the moon is seen in one place then this moon isn't just for that place
but for all the world, however, the rule applies to the other places
only when there has been a witness about the sighting of the moon, i.e.
someone has given oath or the judge that has ordered the seeing of the
moon gives oath or a group of people have took the news from where the
moon was sighted and have stated whether the people in their town have
kept a fast or celebrated Eid. Rule: Proof cannot be accepted if the
news are via a telegram or telephone or radio because even if it is
correct it is only news and not an oath and in the same way news from
people or printing the news in papers cannot be accepted either as it is
not proof of oath. Rule: If the moon is seen then to point towards it is
Makrooh, even if it is to show someone [Alamgiri, Siraajia, Bazazia,
ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST
Rule: By eating, drinking or having intercourse breaks the fast when you
are aware that you are fasting and if you forget that you were fasting
and eat or drank or had intercourse, then the fast will not break [Hidaya,
Alamgiri, Qazi Khan etc.].
Rule: The fast will break if you smoked a cigarette or other form of
smoke inhalation or cigar etc.
Rule: The fast also breaks by eating a paan or tobacco, even if you spit
out the contents.
Rule: If you put sugar, sweet, chewing gum or any item in your mouth
which dissolves and you swallow the taste then the fast will break.
Rule: If there was something stuck in your teeth the same size or larger
than a chick pea and you swallowed it or it was smaller than a chick pea
and you took it out of your mouth and then swallowed it again then the
fast will break. Rule: If your gums bled and the blood was more or equal
to your saliva and went down your throat or was less than the saliva and
it went down your throat and you could taste it then the fast will
break. If the blood was less than the saliva and you couldn't feel the
taste and it went down your throat, then the Roza will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Rule: If a syringe is used or medicine is put up your nostrils or oil or
medicine is put inside the ears then the fast will break, however, if
water is put into or goes into the ears then the fast will not break [Alamgiri,
Rule: If you were cleaning your mouth out or was cleaning your nostrils
and water went down your throat by mistake or went up too far in your
nostrils that it went in your mouth canal even by mistake then the fast
will break, if however, you forgot that you were fasting then the fast
will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If you drank water or eat something whilst you were sleeping or
your mouth was open and water went down your throat or snow went down
your throat then the fast will break [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: To swallow someone else's saliva or to take your own saliva in
your hand and then swallowing it will break the fast [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If you put a coloured thread in your mouth and your saliva became
coloured and then you swallowed the saliva, then the fast will break [Alamgiri,
Rule: If tears went into the mouth and it was only a drop or two then
the fast will not break and if it is more and the taste is felt in the
whole mouth then the fast will break, the same rule applies to sweat [Alamgiri,
Rule: If a man kissed a woman or touched her or hugged her or copulated
with her or embraced her and then ejaculated the fast would break and if
the woman touched a man and the man ejaculated then the fast would not
break. If a man touches a woman on her clothing and her clothing is so
thick that the body warmth cannot be felt then the fast will not break
even if he ejaculates.
Rule: If the private parts are cleaned with excessive force upto the
extent that the water reached upto the place where the suppository is
kept then the fast will break and one should refrain from using too much
force as there is a chance of illness [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. If a man
put oil or water down the hole of his penis then the fast will not break
even if the liquid reaches the bottom. If a woman put water or oil into
her vagina then her fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If a woman put cotton or a cloth in her vagina and it does not
stay completely on the outside then the fast will break. If someone puts
a dry finger up the anus or a woman put a dry finger inside her vagina
then the fast will not break and if the finger is wet or something is on
it then the fast will break when the finger reaches the part where the
point of the suppository goes [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar,
Rule: If a mouthful vomit is done purposely and you are aware that you
are fasting then the fast will break and if small amounts are vomited
then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
Rule: If vomit occurs on it's own without control then whether, it be a
small amount or large the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: The rule of vomit applies when the vomit consists of food or
liquid or blood, if the vomit consists of just phlegm then the fast will
not break regardless of situation [Alamgiri].
Rule: If in Ramadan a person without cause openly eats or drinks then
the rule for an Islamic judge is to execute them [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Actions that break the fast but only Qaza is necessary
Rule: If you were under the impression that the break of dawn had not
yet occurred and therefore you eat, drank or had sexual intercourse and
then later on found out that the break of dawn had already happened,
then the fast will not count and only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: If you were forced into eating or drinking and someone threatened
you (either to kill you or cause you serious harm) if you did not break
your fast then even if you eat with your own hands, only Qaza is
necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Meaning only one fast has to be
performed to replace the one broken [Bahar-e-Shariat].
Rule: If you had eatenor drank or had intercourse by mistake or you
ejaculated just by seeing something or had a wet dream and then you
thought that the fast had broken and therefore you deliberately eat or
drank etc. then it is only compulsory to perform Qaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Rule: If you put ear drops in your ear or there was a wound on your
stomach or head and you put medication on it and it reached the stomach
or brain or you took on a drip (of glucose) or you sucked up medicine up
your nose or you eat a stone, soil, cotton, paper, grass or any item
where people would not generally eat and would think awful of, or stayed
in Ramadan as if in Roza but did not make an intention of fasting, or
did not make an intention in the morning but made an intention before
midday and then eat after midday, or made an intention of fasting but
not for Ramadan or raindrops or snow went down the throat or drank many
drops of tears or sweat or had intercourse with a very small child who
was not capable of having intercourse, or had intercourse with a dead
person or had intercourse with an animal or had intercourse on a thigh
or stomach or kissed a woman on her lips or touched a woman and even if
there was a piece of cloth in between but the warmth of the body is felt
and in these situations you ejaculated or you masturbated or you
ejaculated whilst performing foreplay or except for the fast of Ramadan
you broke another fast whether it be the Qaza of Ramadan, or a woman was
sleeping whilst she was fasting and someone had intercourse with her
whilst in her sleep or a woman was in her sense in the morning and she
made the intention of fasting and then she went insane and whilst in
this situation sexual intercourse was committed with her, or you were
under the impression that it is night and you had food or you were in
doubt that it was night but you had food but in fact the morning had
broken, or you thought that the sun had set and you eat but the sun had
not set or two people gave witness that the sun had set and two people
gave witness that it was still day and this situation you eat food then
in ALL the above situations only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Rule: A traveller settled at a place, a woman on her period or bleeding
after childbirth became clean from it or an insane person came back to
their senses, or an ill person became healthy whose fast was broken
whether someone made the person break their fast or water or other
liquid went down the throat by mistake and the fast was broken because
of this or you thought that it was night and had some food but in fact
morning had broken or you thought that it was sunset but in fact daytime
was still left then in all these situations where there is still daytime
left then you must stay as if you were in fasting as this is Wajib and
then perform Qaza for the fast and if a child became an adult or an
infidel became a Muslim then the Qaza for this day is not necessary but
to remain as if they were fasting for the rest of the day is also
necessary for them [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: When a child reaches the age of ten and they have the strength to
keep a fast then they should be forced to keep a fast and if necessary
they should be hit and if the strength is seen and then they break the
fast then they are not to be given the order of Qaza, however, if the
Namaz is broken then they should be made to repeat it [Radd-ul-Mohtar,
Bahar]. If someone was having intercourse before dawn and as soon as
dawn occurred they separated then there is no harm but if they continued
then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If you were having intercourse by mistake and you separated as
soon as you remembered then there is no harm and if you continued then
Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: A deceased person had some Qaza that he had to perform then the
Wali (next of kin) should give Fidya (money to replace the fast) to the
poor but this is only necessary when the deceased had made a will and
left some property behind and if this is not the case then it is not
necessary for the Wali to give Fidya, however, it is better if they do
Actions that break the fast and Kaffara is also necessary
If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary.
The Kaffara (compensation) is either to free one slave and if this is
not possible then keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if
this is also not possible then feed fully sixty beggars twice in a day.
If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day's fast is
missed then you must start the sixty again the previous ones will not
count. If someone had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the
sixtieth due to illness etc. then they must start again the previous
fifty nine are wasted. However, if a woman starts her period in between
then she must miss them and continue the fasts once she becomes clean
and the previous fasts before the period started will count and when
completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar,
Alamgiri]. When breaking the fast and for Kaffara to become necessary
there are a few conditions that have to be fulfilled and only then the
Kaffara become necessary.
Conditions where Kaffara become necessary
1. A fast is kept in the month of Ramadan with the intention of keeping
a fast of Ramadan.
2. The person keeping the fast is a resident and not a traveller.
3. The person is an adult and is sane (if a child or madman breaks the
fast then Kaffara is not necessary).
4. The intention for the fast of Ramadan was done at night (if the
intention for the fast was made in the day before midday and then broken
then only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara).
5 After breaking the fast an act occurred which gives reason to miss a
fast which you had no control over such as a woman started her period or
such an illness occurred where it is allowed to miss a fast then the
Kaffara will not be necessary. If however, after breaking the fast a
person became a Ma'zoor (had a problem) which was within their control
such as a person injured themselves and therefore became Ma'zoor or
became a traveller then the Kaffara will not be cancelled as these
things are within their control and Kaffara becomes necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: A person fasting purposely eat or drank some medicine or tablets
or drank water or had something to eat or drink for pleasure or had
intercourse in the front or back passage with a person capable of having
intercourse (male or female) and whether they had an orgasm or not or
had intercourse with another person fasting then in all these situations
both Qaza and Kaffara is necessary.
Rule: If such an act is done whereby the thought is that the fast will
not break(except eating, drinking or having intercourse), but you
thought that the fast has broken and then you eat or drank, for example,
you extracted blood or put on Surma (eye colour) or you had intercourse
with an animal or touched a woman or kissed a woman or laid next to a
woman or performed foreplay but in all these cases you did not reach
orgasm i.e. did not ejaculate, or you put a dry finger up the anus and
then after this you purposely eat or drank then in all these cases it is
necessary to perform Qaza and Kaffara. If however, an act is performed
where the thought is that the fast does not break and you thought that
the fast had broken and a Mufti (Islamic jurist) gave a Fatwa and the
Mufti is respected within the local community and the Fatwa is that the
fast has broken and then you purposely eat or drank, or you had wrongly
misinterpreted a Hadith and thought that the fast had broken and then
you eat and drank, then the Kaffara is not necessary even though the
Fatwa is wrong or the Hadith heard is not proven [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Acts that do not break the fast
Rule: If you eat, drink or have sexual intercourse by mistake then the
fast does not break.
Rule: If a fly, smoke or dust goes down the throat then the fast does
not break, however, if you purposely inhaled smoke then the fast will
break if you know that you are fasting. For example, incense, loban was
lighted and was brought near the mouth and the smoke was sucked up the
nose, then the fast will break.
Rule: If you apply oil or lotion or surma on the body or eyes then the
fast will not break and if the taste of the oil or surma is felt in the
throat or if the saliva is coloured due to the surma then the fast will
still not break [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Johra, Bahar].
Rule: If a fly goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if
it is deliberately swallowed then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
If whilst talking the lips got wet or you cleared your throat and then
drank the saliva, then the fast will not break but you should refrain
from doing this [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]
Rule: If your gums bled and the blood reached the throat but did not go
down it, then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
Rule: If you were eating by mistake and as soon as you remembered you
spat out the food then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the
food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
Rule: You started eating (sehri) before the break of dawn and whilst you
were eating you saw that the morning had broken and you spat out the
food in your mouth then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the
food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
Rule: If you chewed a linseed or something of equivalent size and it
went down the throat with your saiiva then the fast will not break, if
however, you felt the taste of it then the fast will break [Fatahul
Rule: If medicine is grounded or flour is sieved and you felt the taste
in your throat then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul
Rule: If water went inside the ears then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Rule: If you talked badly about someone behind their back then the fast
will not break, however to backbite is a very large sin. It is stated in
the Holy Quran that to backbite is the same as eating the flesh of one's
dead brother, it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that backbiting is worse
than adultery and by backbiting the light (Moor) of fasting will
Rule: If you kissed but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break,
and in the same way you looked at a woman or her private parts but did
not touch her and ejaculated or reached orgasm even though you looked
many times or you thought about intercourse for a long time or kept on
thinking about sexual activities and then ejaculated, then in all these
situations the fast will not break [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: 'If you had a wet dream (nocturnal emission) then the fast will
Rule: If you remained in a state where bathing is obligatory (Junub)
until the morning, in fact remained like that all day then the fast will
not break, however to remain like that so that you miss a Namaz is Haram
and it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that where there is a Junub person
in a house the angels of mercy do not enter the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Bahar]. Rule: If you had intercourse in any other hole except for the
two passages below then unless you ejaculate the fast will not break.
Also, if you masturbated but did not ejaculate then the fast does not
break although this act is strictly Haram and it is stated in the Hadith
that those who do this are not with me (Holy Prophet) [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Acts that make the fast Makrooh
Rule: To lie, backbite, tell-tale, to swear, talk shamelessly, to cause
someone harm are all Haram acts anyway, but to do these acts whilst
fasting are even more Haram and because of this the fast become Makrooh.
Rule: For a fasting person to taste or chew something without reason
then the fast becomes Makrooh. The acceptable reason is when a husband
or master is very short tempered and due to there being less salt will
cause him disappointment then to taste (but not swallow) will not make
the fast Makrooh. Another reason is when there is a small child or
elderly or disabled person who cannot chew a chappati or bread and there
is no other person available who is not fasting then the fast will not
become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Definition of tasting
Tasting something is not what is known as today where to taste something
a few bites are taken or a few sips are taken, never mind tasting this
will break the fast and if the conditions of Kaffara apply then Kaffara
will become necessary. Tasting is to put something on the tongue and the
taste is identified and then the food is spat out and none of it goes
down the throat then the fast will not break and if something goes down
the throat then the fast will break. Rule: If an item is purchased and
it is necessary to taste it otherwise you would suffer a loss then you
can taste it and the fast will not become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: To kiss a woman or to embrace her or to touch her is Makrooh when
the fear is that you may ejaculate or may be tempted to have sexual
intercourse and to kiss her on the lips or to suck her tongue is even
more Makrooh and in the same way to perform foreplay is also Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Bahar]. To smell a rose or musk (perfume) etc. and. to put oil on the
beard or mouchtache or to put on surma is not Makrooh as long as the
surma is applied to look handsome or the oil is put on so that the beard
will grow, and if the beard is a fist in length then it is Makrooh even
when not fasting and if you are fasting then the Makrooh is even more [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: Whilst fasting, for a person to clean the nose or mouth with too
much water and exaggeration is Makrooh, exaggeration in washing the
mouth means to fill the whole mouth with water.
Rule: Except for bathing or Wuzu to put water in the mouth or up the
nose to cool down or wash the body or put on a wet cloth to cool down is
not Makrooh, however, if you do this to show that you are suffering i.e.
to put on a wet cloth, then it is Makrooh because to have a small heart
for worship is not a good thing [Alamgih, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: To gather saliva in the mouth and then to swallow even without
fasting is not a good thing but it is Makrooh whilst fasting [Alamgiri,
Bahar]. To perform Miswaak whilst fasting is not Makrooh, in fact just
as it is Sunnat to perform Miswaak on other days it is also Sunnat
SEHRI AND IFTAAR(OPENING AND CLOSING THE FAST)
The virtue for performing Sehri
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated "eat for Sehri as
there is a lot of blessings for this. The difference between our fasts
and the fasts of the other book followers is the bite of sehri[Bukhari,
Muslim, Tirmizi,Nisaa'i etc.]. Allah and His angels send blessings to
those who eat at Sehri [Tibrani]. The whole of Sehri is complete
blessing and should not be missed and if possible drink at least one
gulp of water because Allah and His angels send blessings upon those who
perform sehri" [Imam Ahmad]. The Holy Prophet has stated the Allah has
said that out of my servants I love those more who rush their Iftari and
delay their Sehri [Ahmad, Tirmizi etc.]. It is also reported that Allah
chooses those who hurry their Iftari and delay their Sehri [Tibrani].
Rule: To eat Sehri and to delay it is Sunnat, but to delay it so much
that their is doubt that the dawn will break then this is Makrooh [Alamgiri,
Bahar]. Rule: To hurry the Iftar is Sunnat but it must only be done when
you are satisfied that the sun has set, and until you are not completely
satisfied you should not start Iftari even if the Mo'azzin has called
the Azaan. On days where it is cloudy the Iftar should not be hurried [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
What should Iftar be started with ?
Rule: The Holy Prophet has stated that when you start the Iftar, then
start it with either some dates or dry, dates, and if these are not
available then start it with water as this is an item that purifies. The
Holy Prophet used to pray this Dua when finishing the fast (Dua of
Iftari) "Allahumma Laka Sumto, Wa Alaa Rizqika Aftarto" meaning, Oh
Allah I fasted for you and I have opened my fast with vour given wealth.
Situations Where Missing The Fast Is Allowed
Rule: Travelling, pregnancy, breast-feeding, sickness, fear of being
killed, any other difficulty recognised by Shariat or illness affecting
sense are all reason where missing the fast is allowed and therefore no
sin will be committed and when the cause is over then to keep Qaza of
the missed fast is compulsory.
Rule: Travelling means as per Shariat the recognised distance, i.e. a
journey with the intention of travelling three days (fifty seven and a
half miles) even if the journey is for a disallowed cause [Durr-e-MukhtarJ.
Rule: If you started travelling in the daytime then that day's fast is
not a cause, however, if it is broken then the Kaffara will not be
necessary but you will have committed a sin, and if you broke it before
starting the journey and then started the journey, then Kaffara will
also be necessary. If you travelled during the day but forgot something
at home and returned for it and whilst back at home you broke the fast
and then started the journey again, then Kaffara is also Wajib [Alamgiri,
Rule: If a traveller had not started travelling before midday and had
not eaten anything so far, then it is Wajib to make the intention for
the fast [Johra, Bahar].
Rule: If no harm will affect the traveller or his companion if they
fasted then it is better to fast and if it will cause a problem then it
is better not to fast [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: If a pregnant woman or a mother breast feeding has a true
indication that her life or the child's life is in risk then she can
miss the fast even if the breast feeding woman is only a wet nurse and
only does this work in Ramadan [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If an ill person has a true indication that their illness will
worsen or the healing will be delayed or if a healthy person has a
definite indication that their health will deteriorate or the helper
will become very weak then in all the above situations it is allowed to
miss the fast [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Rule: In these situations a definite indication is necessary and just a
thought or fear is not sufficient. A definite . indication means three
options, either a physical sign is seen or felt, or true experience is
known or a Muslim Doctor who is not a wrongdoer (Fasiq) has advised. If
therefore a physical sign is not seen or it has never been experienced
or an infidel doctor or wrongdoer has advised and you missed a fast then
this will mean that you have committed a sin and if you break a fast
then Kaffara would also be necessary [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Most of
today's doctors if they are not infidels then they certainly are
wrongdoers and if these people advise then it must not be followed and
it is not allowed to miss the fast or to break the fast is not allowed.
These doctors are seen to forbid fasting for small illnesses and do not
have the decency to separate the illness that does need the fast to be
missed and the illness where fasting would not cause any harm.
Rule: If you are so hungry or thirsty that you are definitely sure that
you will die or you will lose sanity then in this situation do not keep
a fast [Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If you are bitten by a snake and your life is at risk then break
the fast [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If an old age pensioner (an old person who is getting weaker every
day) who does not have the strength to keep fast and will no longer be
able to keep a fast then it is allowed for them not to fast anymore, but
it is Wajib upon them to give Fidya for every fast missed meaning to
fully feed a beggar twice or to give Sadqa and Fitra for every fast
missed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If an old person cannot keep the fast in summer due to the heat
but can keep the fast in winter then he can miss them in the summer but
it is obligatory for him to fast perform Qaza) in the winter [Radd-ul-Mohtar,
Bahar etc.]. Rule: After giving Fidya the old person gained enough
strength to keep the Qaza for the missed fast then it is Wajib upon them
to fast and the Fidya will be counted as voluntary.
Rule: A person cannot fast or pray Namaz for another person, however he
can send the reward for his fasts to other people [Hidaya, Alamgiri,
Rule: A Nafl fast if started deliberately becomes necessary and
therefore if it is broken it becomes Wajib to keep a Qaza or if it
breaks unintentionally such as if monthly periods start it is still
necessary to keep it's Qaza [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
Rule: If a Nafl fast is kept on Eid days or the days when it is Makrooh
to fast then it is not Wajib to finish the fast, in fact it is Wajib to
break it and Qaza is not Wajib for breaking this fast. If you have made
a promise to fast on these days then it is Wajib that you keep the fast
but on some other day not on these days [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
When Nafl fasts can be broken
Rule: You can break a Nafl fast due to the arrival of guests when you
are sure that you will perform Qaza for it and it is only allowed to
break the fast before midday not after. However, if your parents are
unhappy then it is allowed to break the fast before Asr Namaz and not
after [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If someone has invited you for a meal then you can break the Nafl
fast before midday and it is necessary to keep it's Qaza.
Rule: A woman should not fast Nafl, promised or oath Rozas without her
husband's permission and if she has then he can make her break them but
to perform the Qaza will be Wajib and permission should be asked from
the husband before keeping them. If however there is no problem from her
husband then she can keep the Qaza without his permission and in fact if
he refuses she can still keep the Qaza. As for Ramadan fasts or Ramadan
Qaza fasts there is no need to gain permission from her husband and in
fact if he stops her she must still keep these fasts [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Rule: If a fast is not kept due to any reason then when
it is possible it the Qaza must be kept [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
VIRTUES FOR SOME NAFL FASTS
Meaning fasting on the tenth of Mohharram and it is better to fast on
the ninth of Mohharram. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam kept
the Ashura fast himself and instructed others to keep it and also stated
that after Ramadan the best fast is of Ashura [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu
Da'ud, Tirmizi] and he has also stated that the Ashura fast erodes the
past one year and the coming one year's sins [Muslim, Abu Da'ud].
Six fasts of Shawwal
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who
have kept the fasts of Ramadan and then kept six fasts of Shawwal, then
they are like those who have always kept a fast. He has also stated that
if you fast after Eid for six days then you have fasted for the whole
year [Muslim, Abu Da'ud Tirmizi, Nisaai, Ibne-Maja etc.].
Rule: It is better that they are kept. separately and if they are kept
continuously after Eid then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Fast of Shabaan and the virtue for the 15th of Shabaan
The Holy Prophet Salallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that when the
fifteenth night of Shabaan arrives then on that night stand (meaning
perform Nafl Namaz) and fast during the day, because Allah Ta'ala after
sunset pays special attention to the world and says is there anyone
wanting forgiveness whom I will forgive, is there anyone looking for
wealth whom I will- give wealth to, is there anyone who is stuck in
difficulty whom I will release ? Is there anyone like this, is there
anyone like this ? and He states this until the sunrise of Fajr [Ibne
Maja]. He has also stated that on the night of the fifteenth Allah pays
attention to all His creation and forgives all except for the infidel
and those who break friendship because of a worldly cause [Tibrani, Ibne
Fasts of Ayyam Baiz
Meaning the fasts of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of every
month. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that
fasting for three. days every month is like fasting all the time [Bukhari,
Muslim]. He has also stated that if possible keep three fasts every
month as every fast erodes ten sins and clears you of sins like water
cleans clothes [Tibrani].
Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that the actions
of each person is presented to Allah on Mondays and Thursdays and I
would prefer that my actions are presented when I am fasting. He has
also stated that Allah forgives everyone except two people who have had
a fight and are not speaking to each other, then Allah tells His angels
to leave them until they make up [Tirmizi, Ibne Maja].
Fasting on Wednesdays and Thursdays
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who
fast on Wednesdays and Thursdays, then there freedom from Hell has been
written down and those who fast on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays
then Allah Ta'ala makes a house for them in Jannat where the inside can
be seen from the outside and the outside can be seen from the inside.
Rule: To specifically keep a fast only on Fridays is Makrooh, therefore,
you should keep a fast before or after, as to keep a Nafl or Sunnat fast
on it's own is Makrooh.
AI'TEKAAF - STAYING IN MOSQUE
Ai'tekaaf is to stay with the intention of Ai'tekaaf for the sake of
Allah in Mosque. There are three types of Ai'takaaf, Wajib,
Sunnat-e-Maukida and Mustahhab.
This is when a promise is made and fulfilled. For example, you make the
intention that if my such and such thing is done then I will stay in
Mosque for one day or two days. Once the action is completed it is
necessary to perform Ai'tekaaf and with this Ai'tekaaf fasting is a
condition and without fasting the Ai'tekaaf is not correct.
This is performed in the last third of Ramadan, meaning the last ten
days. i.e. from sunset of the twentieth of Ramadan you entered in the
Mosque with the intention of Ai'tekaaf and did not come out until the
thirtieth sunset or if the moon is seen on the twenty-ninth sunset. If
the intention of Ai'tekaaf is made after sunset on the twentieth then
the Sunnat Maukida will not be counted. This Ai'tekaaf is
Sunnat-e-Kifaya meaning if one person within the community performs it
then all will not be held responsible and if no-one performs it then all
will. be held responsible. Fasting is also a condition for this
Ai'tekaaf, but the Ramadan fasts are sufficient [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hindiya].
Except for the Ai'tekaaf Wajib and the Ai'tekaaf Sunnat, any other
Ai'tekaaf is Mustahhab. Fasting is not a condition for Ai'tekaaf
Mustahhab and it can be done for a little while. Whenever you go to
Mosque, make the intention for this Ai'tekaaf even if you are going for
a short while and when you come out the Ai'tekaaf will finish. For the
intention, just the thought that I am performing Ai'tekaaf Mustahhab for
Allah is sufficient [Alarngiri, Bahar etc.].
Rule: Mosque is necessary for men but for women the place where she
normally prays Namaz is sufficient [Hidaya, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: It is Haram for the Mu'takif (the person performing Ai'tekaaf) to
come out of Mosque without a reason, even if it is by mistake, as the
Ai'tekaaf will break. In the same way if the woman comes out of the area
of Ai'tekaaf without reason then her Ai'tekaaf will break even if she
remains in the house [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. There are two reasons
where you can leave the Mosque, one is for natural necessity and the
other is for religious necessity. The natural necessity reason is things
such as, excretion, urination, to clean the private parts, bathing, Wuzu
(where there is no facilities in Mosque to perform Wuzu or have a bath,
i.e. a big pool, showers, etc.). The religious necessity is things like
going to pray Eid or Juma Namaz and if in the Mosque that you are
staying does not have regular Jamaat prayers then you can leave and go
to pray Jamaat. Except for these reasons if you went outside the Mosque
even for a little while then the Ai'tekaaf will break, even if it was
done by mistake.
Rule: The Mu'takif will remain in Mosque and he will eat, drink and
sleep there, and if he leaves the Mosque for these things then the
Ai'tekaaf will break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya etc.].
Rule: Except for Mu'takif, no other person has the permission to eat,
drink or sleep and if you wanted to do these things in Mosque then first
make the intention of Ai'tekaaf and then either pray Namaz or other
worship and then perform these functions, but you must remember and take
great care that the Mosque does not get dirty [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar
etc.]. Rule: To fulfil the Mu'takifs needs or his family's needs, the
Mu'takif is allowed to buy or sell in the Mosque as long as the items
that he is buying are already not available in the Mosque or if they are
available then there is only a small amount and it does not take a lot
of space and if the intention is to make business then this is not
allowed even if the items are not available in the Mosque [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Rule: The Mu'takif should not stay quiet nor should he speak but he
should pray the Quran or Hadith or pray the Durood Sharif, and learn or
lecture about the knowledge of Islam, and pray the life stories of the
Prophets and the Walls of Allah and write about religion
Rule: If Nafl Ai'tekaaf is broken then there is no Qaza for it. If the
Sunnat Ai'tekaaf is broken then only the day that is broken is necessary
for Qaza and not for all the ten days. If the Wajib Ai'tekaaf is broken
and the promise was to keep Ai'tekaaf for some days of the month then
only the day where the Ai'tekaaf is broken needs to be repeated. If the
intention was to keep so many continuous days Ai'tekaaf and it breaks
then the Ai'tekaaf will have to be started again. If the continuity is
not the promise then just repeat it from where it was broken.
Rule: Whatever the reason may be for breaking the Ai'tekaaf, whether it
be intentionally or unintentionally, the Qaza has to be performed.